Multiple Health Benefits of Chocolate, Red Wine, and Apples When Consumed in the Right Amounts - Neuroscience News
Oct 05, 2022 1 min, 39 secs

Summary: Optimal intake of B-type procyanidins, a class of polyphenols found in apples, cocoa, and red wine, is linked to metabolic and the hormesis of hemodynamic responses.

This successfully decreased the temporary increase in heart rate induced by the optimal dose of cocoa flavanol.

This suggested that the SNS, which controls the action of adrenaline blockers, is responsible for the hemodynamic and metabolic changes induced by a single oral dose of B-type procyanidin.

The researchers next ascertained why optimal doses, and not high doses, are responsible for the thermogenic and metabolic responses.

Professor Osakabe surmises, “Since α2 blockers are associated with the down-regulation of the SNS, the reduced metabolic and thermogenic outputs at a high dose of B-type procyanidins seen in our study may have induced α2 auto-receptor activation.

Thus, SNS deactivation may be induced by a high dose of B-type procyanidins.”.

“Hormetic response to B-type procyanidin ingestion involves stress-related neuromodulation via the gut-brain axis: Preclinical and clinical observations” by Taiki Fushimi et al.

Hormetic response to B-type procyanidin ingestion involves stress-related neuromodulation via the gut-brain axis: Preclinical and clinical observations.

Results of meta-analyses have suggested that intake of B-type procyanidins reduces cardiovascular disease risk

Another recent focus has been on the effects of B-type procyanidins on central nervous system (CNS) function

Although long-term B-type procyanidin ingestion is linked to health benefits, a single oral intake has been reported to cause physiological alterations in circulation, metabolism, and the CNS

Comprehensive analyses of previous reports indicate an optimal mid-range dose for the hemodynamic effects of B-type procyanidins, with null responses at lower or higher doses, suggesting hormesis

Hormesis of hemodynamic and metabolic responses to B-type procyanidins was recently confirmed in animal studies, however, and our work has linked these effects to the CNS

Here, we evaluate the hormetic response elicited by B-type procyanidins, recontextualizing the results of intervention trials

In addition, we discuss the possibility that this hormetic response to B-type procyanidins arises via CNS neurotransmitter receptors

We have verified the direction of future research for B-type procyanidins in this review

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